Friday, October 31, 2008

How to Make Millions by Protecting a Forest


David Fogarty

SINGAPORE, Oct 30 (bdnews24.com/Reuters) - In the far north of Indonesia's Sumatra island lies a vast stretch of forest brimming with orangutans, rare Sumatran tigers and elephants.

In a quirk of fate, a decades-long insurgency in Aceh province prevented illegal loggers from stripping the place bare.

Apart from its wildlife and timber, though, the forest is rich in another resource; the carbon locked up in the soil and very trees coveted by loggers -- legal and illegal.

Keen to earn money from the forest, called the Ulu Masen ecosystem, the government of Aceh province joined a leading conservation group and the financial market to save it.

In return, the province is set to earn millions of dollars through the sale of carbon credits to investors, with a portion of the cash flowing to local communities to encourage them to halt illegal logging and pay for alternative livelihoods.

Money from the initial sale of credits for this project is expected to flow in the coming months.

"I strongly believe there should be a market for carbon credits and forests. It's about the only mechanism that could provide local incentives," said Frank Momberg, project director for international NGO Fauna and Flora International, the group at the heart of the Ulu Masen forest conservation project.

The model is being studied and repeated across Indonesia and other tropical developing nations as the world turns to saving the remaining rainforests in the battle against climate change.

The U.N.-based scheme, called reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, or REDD, could be worth tens of billions of dollars a year for developing nations, with rich nations buying forest credits to meet mandated emissions curbs.

With so much money potentially at stake, banks and carbon trading firms are ramping up their interest.

LOCAL ISSUE, GLOBAL PROBLEM

But much has to be sorted out, such as how to ensure the forests aren't cut down, how to accurately measure the amount of carbon saved over time, the best method to trade REDD credits and how to ensure local communities get a fair share of the money.

Satellite monitoring as well as developing national carbon accounting systems will be key, and so too will be avoiding "leakage" in which preventing deforestation in one area causes logging to occur in another.

Some conservation groups also fear rich nations will merely buy up vast amounts of REDD credits to meet their emissions targets while doing little to clean up their own industries. Europe also fears a flood of cheap REDD credits could overwhelm its existing emissions trading scheme, depressing offset prices.

"For us the main point, from a trading stand-point, where REDD projects are difficult is on their permanence," said Trevor Sikorski, director of commodities research for Barclays Capital in London.

"If it's about deforestation but then that deforestation goes ahead in three years then that carbon would still be released into the air. So it's all about the reversibility of forests as carbon sinks and that's the real core issue that has to be addressed," he said.

Forests soak up vast amounts of carbon dioxide, acting like a set of lungs for the planet. But clearing and burning them is contributing to about 20 percent of all mankind's carbon emissions that are warming the planet.

The United Nations aims to incorporate REDD into the next phase of the Kyoto Protocol from 2013.

The idea is to complement an existing Kyoto scheme, called the Clean Development Mechanism, that allows wealthy states to invest in clean energy projects in the developing world in return for CO2 offsets called CERs. These are presently trading around 16 Euros per tonne.

"HUGE MARKET"

"The dimensions are massive. If you compare with a CDM project of 60,000 tonnes a year, these projects are sometimes 200 times bigger, so if this comes through, it's going to be a huge market," said Renat Heuberger, managing partner of global carbon project developer and advisory firm South Pole Carbon.

Indonesia has rapidly become the center of REDD trial schemes in Asia because it still has large areas of forest, despite rapid deforestation.

FFI has teamed up with Australia's Macquarie Group to develop three REDD projects in West Kalimantan and Papua. Investment group New Forests, headquartered in Sydney, has signed a deal with the government of Papua to protect 200,000 ha of forest that could save up to 40 million tonnes of CO2 being emitted over the project's lifetime.

The Australian government has pledged A$30 million as part of a scheme to protect 50,000 ha of forest in Kalimantan and rehabilitate at least 50,000 ha of drained peat swamp.

The Ulu Masen scheme aims to save 3.4 million tonnes of CO2 being emitted each year, or 100 million tonnes over the project's lifetime.

To market the credits, the government of Aceh last year teamed up with U.S. bank Merrill Lynch and Australian firm Carbon Conservation to sell the offsets, called VERs, into the voluntary carbon credit market.

Carbon Conservation is acting as a broker and joined FFI to develop the project.

The project hinges on regular monitoring of the forest from the air and on the ground and FFI is running a program to recruit and train 1,000 forest rangers, some of them ex-rebels from Aceh's former GAM separatist group.

SEEING REDD

Community development was also key, said Momberg.

This meant plowing part of the proceeds directly back to the estimated 130,000 people who live around the forest to develop sustainable biofuel production, biomass power generation, mini-hydro power projects as well as promote growth of alternative cash crops.

Failure to do so would mean villagers returning to illegal logging. An estimated 2,000 to 3,000 villagers were involved in the lucrative trade around Ulu Masen, according to a 2006 report by World Bank-backed Aceh Forest and Environment Project.

"If you don't involve the local communities in either an alternative business or something that is good for them to actually preserve that forest, there's no long-term suitability of that project," said Pep Canadell, executive officer of the Global Carbon Project.

"It's critical and I haven't really seen a package of interesting possibilities," said Canadell, a member of an Australian government advisory panel on REDD.

Some conservation groups, such as Friends of the Earth, fear placing a greater value on forests risks a jump in land rights abuses by governments and corporations in the rush for carbon credits, threatening the livelihoods of indigenous communities.

More than a billion people worldwide depend of forests for their livelihoods, so REDD is a huge threat to them if not managed properly, the group says.

FFI's Momberg said the key was to limit the direct involvement of national governments in funding schemes for local communities. REDD schemes should also meet stringent verification standards to ensure permanence, community involvement and protection of forests' biodiversity.

"If everything is vested in the national government, that's where you will find it very difficult to have that fair level of participation at the community level," said Jeff Hayward, of U.S.-based conservation group Rainforest Alliance.

"Fundamental to verification criteria is who owns the carbon, what rights do they have, how have they decided upon the use of those rights, how fairly are they being compensated, are they informed," said Hayward, manager of the alliance's climate initiative.

Momberg said interest in REDD investments has jumped since the United Nations formally backed the scheme last December.

"I'm getting phone calls every month from investors into REDD. The appetite for REDD and voluntary carbon credits was non-existent two years ago."

Thursday, October 30, 2008

One Click Can Infected You With Malware or Spyware


One Click on a HTTP Link Can Make You Infected with Malware or Spyware

One click is all it takes to be infected and for the avid PC user, it would be wise to make sure that you look before you click. Malware issues can come in different forms like:

1. Emails
2. Popups
3. Links via Instant Messaging

In fact, even if you know the person who sent you the link, you cannot entirely rely on your relationship and trust with them as the main reason for clicking on the link. This was done before but today, people have to be aware that there are some accounts that can be easily hacked or even impersonated.

Much of these issues have plagued us through the years. Some have had their share of problems dealing with Malware and Trojans. They are different from viruses but sometimes, they can do more harm compared to the traditional viruses.

Even having anti-virus or anti-spyware protection is not guarantee from being contaminated with them. Remember, a click is all that it takes and all hell will break loose. For most, it is easy to remedy since they can reformat their computer. But think about the files you may lose from the moment you click on these links.

It may be hard to save these files since chances are they have already been infected. With that said, your files and PC are practically good as dead. So the moral of the lesson is, don’t be trigger happy with clicking. You are just raisin the stakes of being infected by doing so.

AkTEL GPRS Connection Setting on Laptop or Desktop PC


AkTel GPRS Connection Setting for Laptop or Desktop PC


AkTEL GPRS Connection can be used as wireless Internet anywhere in Bangladesh, if you have GPRS Enable AkTEL Connectivity.

This GPRS Internet Connection can be used by either your Mobile phone handset or GPRS modem on your PC or Desktop. Before using AkTel GPRS Connection for Internet on your PC, you must have to connect your Mobile Handset or GPRS Modem with your Laptop or Desktop PC.

AkTel Customer can connect their handset via Bluetooth or data Cable even via Infrared but it has to be recognize as Modem on your Laptop or Desktop PC.

After installing your GPRS Enable handset or GPRS modem with your computer, check in the modem option whether the Handset is working as a Modem. If it is successfully connected as modem and your operating system is Windows XP, GPRS Connection bellow will enable you to connect your PC to Internet.

On your PC, go to 'Control Panel', Open 'Network Connection' by double click.

From 'Network Connection dialog box, click 'Create a new Connection'. It will open an wizard to setup your new Connection. Choose 'Set up my connection manually' then 'Connect using a Dial-up Modem.

On this box enter following configuration:

Select Your Modem: (Select Your Handset/GPRS Modem)

ISP Name: AKTEL
Phone No: *99***1#
Username:
Password:
APN: Internet

Then Click Finish. Your AkTEL GPRS Internet Connection is now ready to connect your desktop or laptop PC to Internet!. 

AKGEL GPRS Connection Setting in Shortcut:

Control Panel --> Network Connection --> Create a New Connection --> Connect to the Internet --> Set up my connection manually --> Connect Using a Dialup Modem -->

Select Your Modem: (Select Your Handset/GPRS Modem)

ISP Name: AKTEL
Phone No: *99***1#
Username:
Password:
APN: Internet

Finish

Note: No need to enter any Username and Password on respective field. 

Enjoy Internet Connection on your PC via GPRS Protocol!

GrameenPhone IPO Will Not Before March 2009


Grameenphone missed the deadline for listing on the capital market because of the ongoing global financial meltdown, and the public offering will not be brought to market before March, the company said on Wednesday.

Anders Jensen, CEO of the country's largest mobile-phone operator by subscription, briefed the media on the status of the firm's move to become a publicly-traded company at GP headquarters where the financial statement for the third quarter of 2008 was released.

GP said it posted revenues of about Tk 4500 crore in the first nine months of the current fiscal year, up 11 percent from the same period of last year, though its average revenue per user (ARPU) has fallen.

The revenue grew around 7 percent to about Tk 1500 crore in the third quarter of this year from last year's.

The company's Bangladesh operations head sought to allay uncertainties about the Initial Public Offering, saying the process was very much on track, albeit delayed, thanks to the global financial turmoil and other challenges.

"We have been delayed as a consequence of global credit crunch where international investors have been a lot more hesitant… because international markets are more volatile," said Jensen.

"We planned to resubmit an updated application to SEC within the fourth quarter. But the entire process will not be complete until the first quarter of next year," he added.

The third quarter saw a further cut in the average tariff rates, which led to 25 percent decline in ARPU over last year's figures.

The subscription growth was also offset due to the ongoing churning of barred non-registered SIMs during the third quarter of this year.

The total revenue, however, rose 7 percent mainly due to subscription growth, which was partially offset by the declining ARPU, the statement said.

The number of subscriptions rose 0.5 million from second quarter and by more than 5 million compared with third quarter of last year, while the market share remained stable at 46 percent

Based on the Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission's re-registration directive, GP has barred 692,000 subscriptions, of which 544,000 were churned out this quarter, while the remainder will barred in the next quarter.

"The overall subscriber growth has slowed down primarily due to the existing high SIM tax, which is limiting the affordability for the customers with limited income.

"However, as the telephone penetration rate is still low at around 30 percent even compared with other regional countries, there is major potential for growth going forward," said Jensen

"With the withdrawal or reduction of the SIM tax, a much larger number of people mainly in the rural areas will be able to enjoy the benefits of modern mobile technology," he said.

Telecoms regulators BTRC has recently decided to allocate an additional spectrum of 7.4 MHz to Grameenphone at a cost of Tk 80 crore per MHz.

"The additional allocation of frequency will enable Grameenphone to further improve its network quality through a more cost-effective and efficient deployment of different network elements," the Grameenphone chief executive said.

Wednesday, October 29, 2008

Earthworm Farming - Old way to Go Green


Worm farming has been around for years on various scales. While the reasons for worm farming are not widely known, those who participate are big believers in the benefits that these worms have on the environment.

Many worm farmers commercially culture worms for profit. Specific breeds of worms are bred and are typically kept in breed specific quarters. Commercially raised worms are typically sold for composting. Some worm farmers distribute to landfills providing a natural method for composting waste.

To promote this Compost Fertilizer and Earthworm Farming Related Issue, following links may usful for all:


Tag: Worm Farming Information, Raising Earthworms, Worm Farm, Worm Farming, Worm Farms, Worms Farm, Farming Worm, Commercial Farming Worm, How To Start A Worm Farm, How To Build A Worm Farm, How To Make A Worm Farm, Farm Compost, Earthworm Castings, Earthworm Composting, Earthworm Farming, Worm Compost, Worm Composting, Worm Farm How To, Worm Farm Instructions, Worm Farm Business, Catalpa Worms


Earthworm Farming - Old way to Go Green


Worm farming has been around for years on various scales. While the reasons for worm farming are not widely known, those who participate are big believers in the benefits that these worms have on the environment.

Many worm farmers commercially culture worms for profit. Specific breeds of worms are bred and are typically kept in breed specific quarters. Commercially raised worms are typically sold for composting. Some worm farmers distribute to landfills providing a natural method for composting waste.

To promote this Compost Fertilizer and Earthworm Farming Related Issue, following links may usful for all:


Tag: Worm Farming Information, Raising Earthworms, Worm Farm, Worm Farming, Worm Farms, Worms Farm, Farming Worm, Commercial Farming Worm, How To Start A Worm Farm, How To Build A Worm Farm, How To Make A Worm Farm, Farm Compost, Earthworm Castings, Earthworm Composting, Earthworm Farming, Worm Compost, Worm Composting, Worm Farm How To, Worm Farm Instructions, Worm Farm Business, Catalpa Worms


WS_FTP Professional Free through TrialPay


WS_FTP Professional: Makes It Easy to Transfer Files Anywhere, Anytime With Complete Security

File transfer software is a fast and simple way to exchange information over the Internet. But with so much data constantly on the move, managing and securing sensitive information can be a challenge. WS_FTP Professional makes it easy to transfer files anywhere, anytime with complete security.

WS_FTP Professional delivers industry-leading security, automation, and customization capabilities, offering the highest level of encryption available for files and a superior range of features that enhance productivity and communication. With more than 40 million users worldwide, the award-winning WS_FTP Professional is the world’s most popular file transfer client. It boasts the fastest transfer speeds and highest level of reliability and security of any file transfer client on the market.

Strongest Transport Encryption – 256-bit AES encryption protects files from being compromised during transfer over SSL / FTPS, SSH / SFTP, and HTTPS protocol connections. The highest level of encryption found in any commercially available file transfer client.

Speciality of WS_FTP: 

Schedule – One-time or recurring file transfers can be scheduled to occur automatically.

Guidance – Getting Started Guide, tutorials, and Connection Wizard make it easy to connect to an FTP or SSH server and transfer files – even transfer multiple files at once.

NEW! Search – Easily locate and transfer files using integrated Google™, Copernic™ or Windows® desktop search engines. Search by parameters such as file type, size and date.

ISOC's New Vice President Scott Hoyt


This is a vital time for both the Internet Society and the Internet at large, and it's my pleasure to announce the start of a new stage in ISOC's evolution. In recent years, we have experienced considerable growth in the breadth of our activities and in our staffing. Over the same period, ISOC has been energized by an expanding and increasingly more engaged membership. Backed by solid funding and outstanding talent, ISOC is now poised to have an even more meaningful and positive impact on the future of the Internet.

In 2007, ISOC launched a dramatic expansion of our mission and goals. A cornerstone of our transformation was the launch of the Major Strategic Initiatives - Enabling Access, InterNetWorks, and Trust & Identity - which frame ISOC's most strategic activities and will provide direction in our programmes over the coming years.

With the new initiatives in place, ISOC remains a strategic and cause-based organization, and we gain the cross-discipline coordination needed to fully engage with all stakeholders in today's complex global environment. At the same time, we are expanding and reinvigorating the channels for member engagement. All this brings the potential for greater success as we work together to fulfill our mission.

Today, I am very pleased to announce two new and important appointments to the Internet Society Executive team: Scott Hoyt as Vice President, Strategic Communications and Business Planning and Jon McNerney as Chief Operating Officer. Scott and Jon join the other members of the Executive Team: Bill Graham, Strategic Global Engagement; Leslie Daigle, Chief Internet Technology Officer; Greg Kapfer, Chief Financial Officer; and Lucy Lynch, Director, Technical Projects. All members of the Executive team report to me as President and CEO, and together we will oversee ISOC's Strategic direction.

These two positions are new roles. The process of filling these positions recognized the changing nature of ISOC and the increased requirements of our more expansive goals. I am excited by the potential that both Scott and Jon bring to these roles, particularly as they apply their significant experience in business development and communications to create a stronger global ISOC with maximum outreach and impact.

As Vice President, Strategic Communications and Planning, Scott will develop and drive a communications plan across all aspects of ISOC's operations, working with internal and external stakeholders to lift ISOC's communications activities to the next level, maximizing our visibility and the effectiveness of our messages. Communication creates communities - and the ISOC membership community can expect creative and meaningful improvements in the information services we provide and the opportunities to get involved and help in the fullest achievement of our mission. Scott has demonstrated success in building organizational and brand awareness, and in service and product launches. These are critical developmental areas for ISOC as we strive to increase our impact and reach out to new communities. Scott will be based in the Reston office.

As Chief Operations Officer, Jon will draw on his extensive organizational and team-building experience to coordinate and maximize our potentials in Membership and Development. His responsibilities also include Education, Public Policy, Regional Bureaus, Grants Management, Information Technology and ISOC's IETF Administrative support functions. His role will be to coordinate the day-to-day business development and membership operations of the organization, while motivating staff to be flexible and creative, and to develop their full potential. His skills will be a great asset as we continue to develop new systems for improving membership interaction. Jon will be based in the Geneva office.

Once again, this is an exciting time for ISOC and, we believe, for the entire ISOC community. I firmly believe this stage in our structural evolution provides the basis for a strong future, and I welcome the high energy, skills, and experience that Scott and Jon will contribute. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all of you for your support of ISOC, and I look forward to working together to advance ISOC's mission.

Best regards,

President & CEO
Lynn St.Amour
The Internet Society

Tuesday, October 28, 2008

1000-Taka Note Issued by Bangladesh Bank is in Market


1000-Taka Note Issued by Bangladesh Bank is in Market

For the first time, Tk 1000-denomination currency note will hit the country's money market from Monday next to meet the growing demand of the currency in the market.

"The highest denomination bank note will be released from the central bank's Motijheel office on Monday and later from all offices of the Bangladesh Bank (BB) gradually," BB Executive Director Khandakar Muzharul Haque told reporters at a press conference Thursday.

He also said the central bank will issue 200 million pieces of Tk 1000-denomination bank note initially.

"Currency in circulation almost doubled in the last ten years," Muzharul Haque said while explaining the need for issuing the note of highest denomination.

There is no plan to introduce Tk 5000 denomination bank note at present, he said while replying to a query. He also said no country in the world could assure that their notes would not be faked.

"We've tried our best to ensure security of the highest denomination bank note," the BB executive noted.

The notes have been printed by the Security Printing Corporation (Bangladesh) Limited, a subsidiary organisation of the central bank.

The note is a little larger in size than other notes in circulation while the colour is reddish-violet. Besides many other security features of the note, signed by BB Governor Salehuddin Ahmed, it bears pictures of Shaheed Minar on the front and Curzon Hall of Dhaka University on the back.

The cause of blind people was also considered in minting the new note as they would easily feel five circles printed on the right side of the note after touching the currency note, officials said.

Managing Director of the Security Printing Corporation (Bangladesh) Limited Abdullah Al Mamoon and senior officials were also present at the press conference.

Each of the notes cost Tk 3-4 for printing, Mamoon said while replying to a query, adding long-life paper has been used in making such bank notes.

Most of the countries in South Asia including India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka have already issued such currency notes.

Source: The Financial Express

Related: 

Crash a Mobile Phone by Sending an SMS


How to Crash a Mobile Phone by Sending an SMS: Nokia 6210, Nokia 3310, Nokia 3330 has Software BUG!

Broken message, frozen phone - By John Leyden

Black Hat Europe So now you can send an SMS and crash a mobile phone, so that the user is locked out.

Job de Haas, a security researcher at ITSX, has adapted a program called sms_client, which sends an SMS message from an Internet-connected PC, in which the User Data Header is broken.

During a presentation during the Black Hat conference last week, he demonstrated how a malformed message crashes a Nokia 6210 phone on its receipt. Once the message is received it is impossible to turn on an infected phone again.

The vulnerability is tied to the software used by a phone. The flaw affects Nokia 6210, 3310 and 3330 phones, de Haas has discovered, but not a Siemens phone he tried. Phones from other manufacturers are yet to be tested.

To fix the problem users have to put a SIM card into a phone without the bug. Alternatively if the SMS message is registered in a user's In-box this could be deleted with a SMS management tool on a PC.

To repeat the exploit requires knowledge of SS7 signalling and telco protocols to adapt sms_client into an attack tool. But given the power of the attack security through obscurity doesn't appeal. The kicker is that the modified sms_client makes it trivial to spoof the source of any attack.

Nokia told us that sending a message which freezes a phone is "something it encountered" before. The company is unfamiliar with the exploit uncovered by ITSX, which comes as a new twist even to clued-up Black Hat attendees. It promises to get us a more detailed technical response, and we'll update you when this becomes available.

Source: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2001/11/28/how_to_crash_a_phone/

Monday, October 27, 2008

List of Country who CAN Apply for DV 2010


LIST OF COUNTRIES BY REGION WHOSE NATIVES ARE ELIGIBLE FOR DV-2010

AFRICA REGION: 
Algeria 
Angola 
Benin 
Botswana 
Burkina Faso 
Burundi 
Cameroon 
Cape Verde 
Central African Republic 
Chad 
Comoros 
Congo Congo, Democratic Republic of the Cote D’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) 
Djibouti 
Egypt Equatorial 
Guinea 
Eritrea 
Ethiopia 
Gabon 
Gambia, The Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau 
Kenya 
Lesotho 
Liberia
Libya
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritania
Mauritius
Morocco
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Somalia
South Africa
Sudan 
Swaziland 
Tanzania 
Togo 
Tunisia 
Uganda 
Zambia 
Zimbabwe

* Persons born in the Gaza Strip are chargeable to Egypt.

ASIA REGION:
Afghanistan 
Bahrain 
Bangladesh 
Bhutan 
Brunei 
Burma 
Cambodia 
East Timor 
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Israel
Japan 
Jordan 
Kuwait 
Laos
Lebanon
Malaysia
Maldives
Mongolia
Nepal
North Korea
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Singapore
Sri Lanka
Syria
Taiwan
Thailand
United Arab Emirates
Yemen

*Note: Natives of the following Asian countries are not eligible for this year’s diversity program: China (mainland-born), India, Pakistan, South Korea, Philippines, and Vietnam. Hong Kong S.A.R and Taiwan do qualify and are listed above. Macau S.A.R. also qualifies and is listed below (Europe). Persons born in the areas administered prior to June 1967 by Israel, Jordan, and Syria are chargeable, respectively, to Israel, Jordan, and Syria.

EUROPE REGION:
Albania 
Andorra 
Armenia 
Austria 
Azerbaijan 
Belarus 
Belgium 
Bosnia and Herzegovina 
Bulgaria 
Croatia 
Cyprus 
Czech Republic
Denmark (including components and dependent areas overseas)
Estonia 
Finland 
France (including components and areas overseas)
Georgia 
Germany 
Greece 
Hungary 
Iceland 
Ireland 
Italy 
Kazakhstan 
Kosovo 
Kyrgyzstan 
Latvia 
Liechtenstein
Lithuania 
Luxembourg
Macau Special Administrative Region
Macedonia 
Malta 
Moldova 
Monaco 
Montenegro
Netherlands (including components and dependent areas overseas)
Northern Ireland
Norway 
Portugal (including components and dependent areas overseas)
Romania 
Russia 
San Marino 
Serbia 
Slovakia 
Slovenia 
Spain 
Sweden 
Switzerland 
Tajikistan 
Turkey 
Turkmenistan 
Ukraine 
Uzbekistan 
Vatican City

Note: Natives of the following European countries are not eligible for this year’s diversity program: Great Britain (United Kingdom) and Poland. Great Britain (United Kingdom) includes the following dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn, St. Helena, and Turks and Caicos Islands. Note that for purposes of the diversity program only, Northern Ireland is treated separately; Northern Ireland does qualify and is listed among the qualifying areas.

NORTH AMERICA REGION: 
The Bahamas

Note for North America Region: In North America, natives of Canada and Mexico are not eligible for this year’s diversity program.

OCEANIA REGION:
Australia (including components and dependent areas overseas)
Fiji 
Kiribati 
Marshall Islands 
Micronesia, Federated States of Nauru 
New Zealand (including components and dependent areas overseas)
Palau 
Papua New Guinea 
Solomon Islands 
Tonga 
Tuvalu 
Vanuatu 
Samoa

SOUTH AMERICA, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE CARIBBEAN REGION:
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina 
Barbados 
Belize 
Bolivia 
Chile 
Costa Rica 
Cuba 
Dominica 
Grenada 
Guyana 
Honduras 
Nicaragua 
Panama 
Paraguay 
Saint Kitts and Nevis 
Saint Lucia 
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 
Suriname 
Trinidad and Tobago 
Uruguay Venezuela

Note for: South America, Central America and The Caribbean Region: 
Countries in this region whose natives are not eligible for this year’s ((DV-2010) diversity program: 
Brazil 
Colombia 
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Guatemala
Haiti
Jamaica
Mexico
Peru.

HR Manager In Hell or Heaven


One day while walking down the street a highly successful Human Resources Manager was tragically hit by a bus and she died. Her soul arrived up in heaven where she was met at the Pearly Gates by St. Peter himself.

"Welcome to Heaven," said St. Peter. "Before you get settled in though, it seems we have a problem. You see, strangely enough, we've never once had a Human Resources Manager make it this far and we're not really sure what to do with you."

"No problem, just let me in," said the woman.

"Well, I'd like to, but I have higher orders. What we're going to do is let you have a day in Hell and a day in Heaven and then you can choose whichever one you want to spend an eternity in."

"Actually, I think I've made up my mind, I prefer to stay in Heaven", said the woman

"Sorry, we have rules..."

And with that St. Peter put the executive in an elevator and it went down-down-down to hell.

The doors opened and she found herself stepping out onto the putting green of a beautiful golf course. In the distance was a country club and standing in front of her were all her friends - fellow executives that she had worked with and they were well dressed in evening gowns and cheering for her. They ran up and kissed her on both cheeks and they talked about old times. They played an excellent round of golf and at night went to the country club where she enjoyed an excellent steak and lobster dinner.

She met the Devil who was actually a really nice guy (kind
of cute) and she had a great time telling jokes and dancing. She was having such a good time that before she knew it, it was time to leave. Everybody shook her hand and waved goodbye as she got on the elevator.

The elevator went up-up-up and opened back up at the Pearly Gates and found St. Peter waiting for her.

"Now it's time to spend a day in heaven," he said. So she spent the next 24 hours lounging around on clouds and playing the harp and singing. She had great time and before she knew it her 24 hours were up and St. Peter came and got her.

"So, you've spent a day in hell and you've spent a day in heaven. Now you must choose your eternity,"

The woman paused for a second and then replied, "Well, I never thought I'd say this, I mean, Heaven has been really great and all, but I think I had a better time in Hell."

So St. Peter escorted her to the elevator and again she went down-down-down back to Hell.

When the doors of the elevator opened she found herself standing in a desolate wasteland covered in garbage and filth. She saw her friends were dressed in rags and were picking up the garbage and putting it in sacks.

The Devil came up to her and put his arm around her.

"I don't understand," stammered the woman, "yesterday I was here and there was a golf course and a country club and we ate lobster and we danced and had a great time. Now all there is a wasteland of garbage and all my friends look miserable."

The Devil looked at her smiled and told...


"Yesterday we were recruiting you, today you're an Employee"

এই মুহুর্তে আল্লাহ কোন কাজে নিয়োজিত আছেন: একটি ছেলে ও তিনটি প্রশ্ন


السلام عليكم

এই মুহুর্তে আল্লাহ কোন কাজে নিয়োজিত আছেন: কটি ছেলে ও তিনটি প্রশ্ন

অনেক বছর আগে, তাবেয়ীনদের সময়ে (সাহাবীদের পরের সময়ে). সেই সময়ে বাগদাদ ছিল ইসলামের এক বিখ্যাত শহর. ইসলামিক সাম্রাজ্যের রাজধানী. কারণ বিখ্যাত সব আলেম এখানে বসবাস করতেন. এটি ছিল ইসলামিক জ্ঞানের কেন্দ্র.
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একদিন রোমের রাজা একজন দূতকে মুসলিমদের উদ্দ্যেশে তিনটি প্রশ্নসহ পাঠালেন; দূত শহরে এসে খলিফাকে জানালেন যে সে রোমের রাজার কাছ থেকে তিনটি প্রশ্ন এনেছেন মুসলিমদের চ্যালেঞ্জ ছুড়ে দিচ্ছেন তার উত্তর দেওয়ার জন্য.
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খলিফা সকল আলেমদের একত্র হতে বললেন এবং রোমান দূত একটি উচু স্থানে দাড়ালেন এবং বললেন, আমি এসেছি তিনটি প্রশ্ন নিয়ে যদি আপনারা এর উত্তর দিতে পারেন আমি এ স্থান ত্যাগ করব প্রচুর সম্পদ রেখে যা আমাকে রোমের রাজা সংগে দিয়ে দিয়েছেন.
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প্রশ্নগুলো হল,
আল্লাহর আগে কি ছিল?
আল্লাহ কোন দিকে মুখ করে আছেন?
এই মুহুর্তে আল্লাহ কোন কাজে নিয়োজিত আছেন?
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সবাই চিন্তায় মগ্ন হয়ে গেলেন; এর মধ্যে এক আলেমের পুত্র তার বাবাকে বলল, বাবা আমি এ প্রশ্নগুলোর জবাব দিতে পারব. ছেলেটি খলিফার কাছে এ প্রশ্নগুলির উত্তর দেবার জন্য অনুমতি চাইল; খলিফা তাকে অনুমতি দিলেন.
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প্রথম প্রশ্নের জবাবে ছেলেটি দূতকে জিজ্ঞেস করল, আপনি কি গুণতে জানেন?
সে বলল, হ্যা.
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তাহলে ১০ থেকে উল্টো দিকে গুনুন.
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রোমান গুনছে,১০,৯,৮,....১ পর্যন্ত গিয়ে সে গুনা থামাল.
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ছেলেটি জিজ্ঞেস করল, ১-এর আগে কি?
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১-এর আগে তো কিছুই নেই, জবাবে বলল রোমান.
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ঠিক আছে গাণিতিক একের আগে যদি কিছুই না থাকে তাহলে আপনি কিভাবে আশা করেন কি থাকবে এই 'এক'-এর আগে যা নিশ্চিত সত্য,শাশ্বত,চিরস্থায়ী,সুস্পষ্ট.
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ছেলেটির স্পষ্ট উত্তরে লোকটি হতবিম্বল হয়ে গেল কিছু অস্বীকার করতে পারল না.
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এরপর সে জিজ্ঞেস করল, তাহলে এখন বল, আল্লাহ কোন দিকে মুখ করে আছেন?
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বালকটি বলল, একটা মোমবাতি আনেন তাতে আগুন জ্বালান; মোমবাতি জ্বালানো হল;
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বালকটি দূতকে জিজ্ঞেস করল, এখন বলুন আগুনের শিখা কোন দিকে মুখ করে আছে?
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সে বলল এটাতো চতুর্দিকেই আলো ছড়াচ্ছে; এটা কোন এক দিকে নির্দিষ্ট নেই.
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তখন ছেলেটি বলল, যদি এই বস্তু চতুর্দিকেই আলো ছড়াতে পারে; তাহলে আপনি কিভাবে এরকম অনুমান করতে পারেন আল্লাহ সম্পর্কে যিনি আকাশ ও পৃথিবীর অধিপতি; সকল আলোর আলো; আল্লাহ সকল দিকে যেকোন সময় মুখ করে থাকেন.
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রোমান দূত বোকা বনে গেল. তিনি অবাক বিস্ময়ে অভিভূত হলেন এতটুকু একটি ছেলে তার সব প্রশ্নের এত সাবলীলভাবে উত্তর দিচ্ছে যে তার যুক্তি-প্রমাণের কাছে সে কোনরুপ দ্বিমত পোষণ করতে পারছে না. তাই সে বেপরোয়াভাবে তার শেষ প্রশ্নটি করতে উদ্বত হল.
কিন্তু প্রশ্ন করার আগে ছেলেটি বলল,
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থামুন এখানে একমাত্র আপনি শুধু প্রশ্ন করছেন আর একমাত্র আমি সে প্রশ্নের জবাব দিচ্ছি;এটা তখনই স্বচ্ছ হবে যদি আপনি উপর থেকে আমি যেখানে দাঁড়িয়ে আছি সেখানে আসবেন আর আমি আপনার জায়গায় যাই যাতে উত্তরগুলো প্রশ্নগুলোর মত সবাই স্পষ্ট শুনতে পারে.
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এ আহবান রোমান দুতের যুক্তিসন্মত মনে হল; তাই সে উপর থেকে নীচে নেমে এল ছেলেটি উচু স্থানে দাড়াল; তখন দূত কয়েকবার জোরে জোরে তার শেষ প্রশ্নটি করল, বল এখন আল্লাহ কি করছেন?
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ছেলেটি বলল,
এই মুহুর্তে যখন আল্লাহ কোন উচু জায়গায় এক মিথ্যাবাদী খুজে পান, তখন তিনি তাকে নীচে নামিয়ে আনেন; এবং যে আল্লাহর একত্ব বিশ্বাস করে তিনি তাকে উপরে উঠান ও সত্যের উপর প্রতিষ্ঠিত করেন; প্রতিক্ষণ আল্লাহ মহাবিশ্বময় শক্তির অনুশীলন করেন. (আল কুরআন-৫৫;২৯)
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রোমান দুতের আর কিছু বলার থাকল না সেই স্থান ত্যাগ করা ছাড়া.
এই ছেলেটি পরবর্তীতে বড় হয়ে ইসলামের এক মহান জ্ঞানী পন্ডিত হিসেবে আবির্ভূত হন; তার নাম ইমাম আবু হানিফা; আল্লাহ তার সহায় হোন.
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MD. Mashfiquer Rahman
Officer
National Bank Ltd.
Beanibazar Br.

আল্লাহ কোন দিকে মুখ করে আছেন : একটি ছেলে ও তিনটি প্রশ্ন


السلام عليكم

আল্লাহ কোন দিকে মুখ করে আছেন: কটি ছেলে ও তিনটি প্রশ্ন

অনেক বছর আগে, তাবেয়ীনদের সময়ে (সাহাবীদের পরের সময়ে). সেই সময়ে বাগদাদ ছিল ইসলামের এক বিখ্যাত শহর. ইসলামিক সাম্রাজ্যের রাজধানী. কারণ বিখ্যাত সব আলেম এখানে বসবাস করতেন. এটি ছিল ইসলামিক জ্ঞানের কেন্দ্র.
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একদিন রোমের রাজা একজন দূতকে মুসলিমদের উদ্দ্যেশে তিনটি প্রশ্নসহ পাঠালেন; দূত শহরে এসে খলিফাকে জানালেন যে সে রোমের রাজার কাছ থেকে তিনটি প্রশ্ন এনেছেন মুসলিমদের চ্যালেঞ্জ ছুড়ে দিচ্ছেন তার উত্তর দেওয়ার জন্য.
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খলিফা সকল আলেমদের একত্র হতে বললেন এবং রোমান দূত একটি উচু স্থানে দাড়ালেন এবং বললেন, আমি এসেছি তিনটি প্রশ্ন নিয়ে যদি আপনারা এর উত্তর দিতে পারেন আমি এ স্থান ত্যাগ করব প্রচুর সম্পদ রেখে যা আমাকে রোমের রাজা সংগে দিয়ে দিয়েছেন.
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প্রশ্নগুলো হল,
আল্লাহর আগে কি ছিল?
আল্লাহ কোন দিকে মুখ করে আছেন?
এই মুহুর্তে আল্লাহ কোন কাজে নিয়োজিত আছেন?
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সবাই চিন্তায় মগ্ন হয়ে গেলেন; এর মধ্যে এক আলেমের পুত্র তার বাবাকে বলল, বাবা আমি এ প্রশ্নগুলোর জবাব দিতে পারব. ছেলেটি খলিফার কাছে এ প্রশ্নগুলির উত্তর দেবার জন্য অনুমতি চাইল; খলিফা তাকে অনুমতি দিলেন.
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প্রথম প্রশ্নের জবাবে ছেলেটি দূতকে জিজ্ঞেস করল, আপনি কি গুণতে জানেন?
সে বলল, হ্যা.
.
তাহলে ১০ থেকে উল্টো দিকে গুনুন.
.
রোমান গুনছে,১০,৯,৮,....১ পর্যন্ত গিয়ে সে গুনা থামাল.
.
ছেলেটি জিজ্ঞেস করল, ১-এর আগে কি?
.
১-এর আগে তো কিছুই নেই, জবাবে বলল রোমান.
.
ঠিক আছে গাণিতিক একের আগে যদি কিছুই না থাকে তাহলে আপনি কিভাবে আশা করেন কি থাকবে এই 'এক'-এর আগে যা নিশ্চিত সত্য,শাশ্বত,চিরস্থায়ী,সুস্পষ্ট.
.
ছেলেটির স্পষ্ট উত্তরে লোকটি হতবিম্বল হয়ে গেল কিছু অস্বীকার করতে পারল না.
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এরপর সে জিজ্ঞেস করল, তাহলে এখন বল, আল্লাহ কোন দিকে মুখ করে আছেন?
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বালকটি বলল, একটা মোমবাতি আনেন তাতে আগুন জ্বালান; মোমবাতি জ্বালানো হল;
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বালকটি দূতকে জিজ্ঞেস করল, এখন বলুন আগুনের শিখা কোন দিকে মুখ করে আছে?
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সে বলল এটাতো চতুর্দিকেই আলো ছড়াচ্ছে; এটা কোন এক দিকে নির্দিষ্ট নেই.
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তখন ছেলেটি বলল, যদি এই বস্তু চতুর্দিকেই আলো ছড়াতে পারে; তাহলে আপনি কিভাবে এরকম অনুমান করতে পারেন আল্লাহ সম্পর্কে যিনি আকাশ ও পৃথিবীর অধিপতি; সকল আলোর আলো; আল্লাহ সকল দিকে যেকোন সময় মুখ করে থাকেন.
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রোমান দূত বোকা বনে গেল. তিনি অবাক বিস্ময়ে অভিভূত হলেন এতটুকু একটি ছেলে তার সব প্রশ্নের এত সাবলীলভাবে উত্তর দিচ্ছে যে তার যুক্তি-প্রমাণের কাছে সে কোনরুপ দ্বিমত পোষণ করতে পারছে না. তাই সে বেপরোয়াভাবে তার শেষ প্রশ্নটি করতে উদ্বত হল.
কিন্তু প্রশ্ন করার আগে ছেলেটি বলল,
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থামুন এখানে একমাত্র আপনি শুধু প্রশ্ন করছেন আর একমাত্র আমি সে প্রশ্নের জবাব দিচ্ছি;এটা তখনই স্বচ্ছ হবে যদি আপনি উপর থেকে আমি যেখানে দাঁড়িয়ে আছি সেখানে আসবেন আর আমি আপনার জায়গায় যাই যাতে উত্তরগুলো প্রশ্নগুলোর মত সবাই স্পষ্ট শুনতে পারে.
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এ আহবান রোমান দুতের যুক্তিসন্মত মনে হল; তাই সে উপর থেকে নীচে নেমে এল ছেলেটি উচু স্থানে দাড়াল; তখন দূত কয়েকবার জোরে জোরে তার শেষ প্রশ্নটি করল, বল এখন আল্লাহ কি করছেন?
.
ছেলেটি বলল,
এই মুহুর্তে যখন আল্লাহ কোন উচু জায়গায় এক মিথ্যাবাদী খুজে পান, তখন তিনি তাকে নীচে নামিয়ে আনেন; এবং যে আল্লাহর একত্ব বিশ্বাস করে তিনি তাকে উপরে উঠান ও সত্যের উপর প্রতিষ্ঠিত করেন; প্রতিক্ষণ আল্লাহ মহাবিশ্বময় শক্তির অনুশীলন করেন. (আল কুরআন-৫৫;২৯)
.
রোমান দুতের আর কিছু বলার থাকল না সেই স্থান ত্যাগ করা ছাড়া.
এই ছেলেটি পরবর্তীতে বড় হয়ে ইসলামের এক মহান জ্ঞানী পন্ডিত হিসেবে আবির্ভূত হন; তার নাম ইমাম আবু হানিফা; আল্লাহ তার সহায় হোন.
.
MD. Mashfiquer Rahman
Officer
National Bank Ltd.
Beanibazar Br.

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